Surface mining is used for an estimated 40% of coal production. Used machinery tools can be utilized to extract coal. Extracting coal is less expensive if it is found near the surface. As soon as coal is extracted, the topsoil is then changed and native timber and vegetation is planted to restore the unique condition. There are three totally different types of surface mining: contour, strip, and mountaintop removal mining.
1- Contour Mining: Contour Mining is mostly used in areas that have steep or rolling terrain. It involves digging the earth above the coal line, or coal seam, alongside the contours of the hilly terrain. This technique will be harmful because it might cause landslides and erosion problems.
2- Strip Mining: Strip Mining usually occurs on flat terrain. The earth is dug up in long cuts or strips till the coal seam is exposed. After the strip has been drilled and blasted and all the coal has been removed, a new strip is created proper subsequent to it and the process continues.
3- Mountaintop Removal Mining: Mountaintop Removal Mining involves utilizing a mix of Contour Mining and Strip Mining. The mountaintops are removed to show the coal beneath and the coal is extracted.
Beneathground Mining Methods
If the coal seams are too deep beneathground, then deep beneathground mining is necessary. Deep beneathground mining strategies include Steady, Longwall, Blast, Retreat Mining and Shortwall Mining.
o Steady Mining: A machine that has a big rotating steel drum with tungsten carbide tooth scrapes coal from the seam. Conveyors are used to transport the removed coal. About 5 tons of coal can be mined per minute. Accounts for about 45% of underneathground coal production.
o Longwall Mining: A sophisticated machine that has a rotating drum that mechanically moves back and forth along the seam. Loosened coal falls on the pan line which takes the coal to the conveyor belt. Accounts for about 50% of Buy coal online production.
o Blast: An older mining technique that uses dynamite and explosives to break away the coal seam. Accounts for less than 5% of coal production.
o Retreat Mining: Probably the most harmful coal mining methods. Pillars are used to hold up the mine roof as coal is extracted. The pillars collapse as miners retreat.
o Shortwall Mining: Similar to longwall mining. Makes use of a steady mining machine with moveable roof supports. The machine shears coal panels about 200 feet wide and half a mile long.